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Archive for October, 2007

DHCP Server

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that handles the assignment of IP addressess to clients that don’t a static IP address automatically. It includes the IP parameters such as subnet masks, default gateway and IP addressess of DNS server.

When computers connect to a network it will search DHCP server for reserved IP address. If the IPs are available then DCHP server will assign them an IP address, Gateway, DNS etc.

 

Dynamic addressing will reduce the job of network administrator because the software keeps track of IP addressess rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. With DHCP server a new computer can be connected to a network without do manually setup a unique IP address.

 

Step 1. Installing DHCP Server

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server

Password:

Reading package lists… Done

Building dependency tree

Reading state information… Done

The following NEW packages will be installed:

dhcp3-server

0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Need to get 302kB of archives.

After unpacking 856kB of additional disk space will be used.

Get:1 http://archive.ubuntu.com feisty/main dhcp3-server 3.0.4-12ubuntu4 [302kB]

Fetched 302kB in 5s (56.3kB/s)

Preconfiguring packages …

Selecting previously deselected package dhcp3-server.

(Reading database … 154991 files and directories currently installed.)

Unpacking dhcp3-server (from …/dhcp3-server_3.0.4-12ubuntu4_i386.deb) …

Setting up dhcp3-server (3.0.4-12ubuntu4) …

Generating /etc/default/dhcp3-server…

* Starting DHCP server dhcpd3 [fail]

invoke-rc.d: initscript dhcp3-server, action “start” failed.

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

 

Step 2. Configuring The DHCP server

After the installation finished, we have to configure the DHCP server before it can run. We have to tell the DHCP server:

  • the range of IP addressess that can be used by clients

  • which gateway can be accessed

  • DNS addressess

  • etc

In this practice, let’s try with a case.

Our Network IP range is: 192.168.0.1 – 192.168.0.254 (254 IP addressess)

(192.168.0.0 if for network address and 192.168.0.255 is for broadcasting address, so we can’t use it)

Sub netmask: 255.255.255.0

Gateway to internet: 192.168.0.1

DNS from ISP: 202.134.2.5 and 202.134.0.155 (telkom speedy)

Our DHCP IP address is: 192.168.0.2

Range of IP addressess that we want to set is: 192.168.0.100 – 192.168.0.200 (100 IP addressess)

 

The configuration filre of our DHCP server is /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cd /etc/dhcp3

taufanlubis@zyrex:/etc/dhcp3$ ls -l

total 16

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 1558 2007-04-02 16:46 dhclient.conf

drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-07-31 08:38 dhclient-enter-hooks.d

drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-04-15 18:56 dhclient-exit-hooks.d

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 3551 2007-04-02 16:46 dhcpd.conf

taufanlubis@zyrex:/etc/dhcp3$

 

Before we change the configuration, always make a back up. In case we may make a mistake.

taufanlubis@zyrex:/etc/dhcp3$ sudo cp dhcpd.conf dhcpd.conf.original

Password:

taufanlubis@zyrex:/etc/dhcp3$

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:/etc/dhcp3$ sudo gedit dhcpd.conf

 

#

# Sample configuration file for ISC dhcpd for Debian

#

# $Id: dhcpd.conf,v 1.1.1.1 2002/05/21 00:07:44 peloy Exp $

#

 

# The ddns-updates-style parameter controls whether or not the server will

# attempt to do a DNS update when a lease is confirmed. We default to the

# behavior of the version 2 packages (‘none’, since DHCP v2 didn’t

# have support for DDNS.)

ddns-update-style none;

 

# option definitions common to all supported networks…

option domain-name “example.org”;

option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;

 

default-lease-time 600;

max-lease-time 7200;

 

# If this DHCP server is the official DHCP server for the local

# network, the authoritative directive should be uncommented.

#authoritative;

 

# Use this to send dhcp log messages to a different log file (you also

# have to hack syslog.conf to complete the redirection).

log-facility local7;

 

# No service will be given on this subnet, but declaring it helps the

# DHCP server to understand the network topology.

 

#subnet 10.152.187.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

#}

 

# This is a very basic subnet declaration.

 

#subnet 10.254.239.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {

# range 10.254.239.10 10.254.239.20;

# option routers rtr-239-0-1.example.org, rtr-239-0-2.example.org;

#}

 

Now, change the configuration to be like below (remove everything):

 

ddns-update-style none;

option domain-name-servers 202.134.2.5, 202.134.0.155;

default-lease-time 86400;

max-lease-time 604800;

authoritative;

subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;

option routers 192.168.0.1;

}

 

Save it. It is very simple and basic configuration only but it’s enough to run our DHCP server. I’ll explain about the configuration after.

 

Step 3. Restart the DHCP server

Now, let’s a try first.

Restart the DHCP server.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

* Stopping DHCP server dhcpd3 [fail]

* Starting DHCP server dhcpd3 [ OK ]

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

When you see ‘fail’ at ‘ Stopping DHCP server dhcpd3′, it’s ok. Because, it’s never run before, right? So, just ignore it.

If you restart the DCHP server again then the ‘fail’ message is gone.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

* Stopping DHCP server dhcpd3 [ OK ]

* Starting DHCP server dhcpd3 [ OK ]

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

Note:

DHCP Server Service will not run if your IP address Computeris set to ‘Automatic Configuration (DHCP). So, make sure that the machine have an IP address before you start DHCP server service.

 

 

To test it, I have a PC using OpenSuse10 that connect to my Ubuntu Feisty DCHP server.

Let’s see if we are success or not.

The network configuration below was taken from my OpenSuse10 PC.

Client IP : 192.168.0.199

Netmask : 255.255.255.0

 

taufanlubis@linuxserver:~> su root

Password:

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis # ifconfig

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0D:88:B3:72:F3

inet addr:192.168.0.199 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0

inet6 addr: fe80::20d:88ff:feb3:72f3/64 Scope:Link

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

RX packets:5 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:86 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:864 (864.0 b) TX bytes:9688 (9.4 Kb)

Interrupt:177 Base address:0xb800

 

lo Link encap:Local Loopback

inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0

inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host

UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1

RX packets:86 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:86 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

RX bytes:6152 (6.0 Kb) TX bytes:6152 (6.0 Kb)

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis #

 

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis # route -n

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

192.168.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0

127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 lo

0.0.0.0 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis #

 

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis # cat /etc/resolv.conf

# generated by NetworkManager, do not edit!

 

nameserver 202.134.2.5

nameserver 202.134.0.155

 

linuxserver:/home/taufanlubis #

 

 

Check if DHCP Server service has been running

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ grep bootps /etc/services

bootps 67/tcp # BOOTP server

bootps 67/udp

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

You can check also using:

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ netstat -uap

(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info

will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)

Active Internet connections (servers and established)

Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name

udp 0 0 *:32770 *:* -

udp 0 0 *:913 *:* -

udp 0 0 *:bootps *:* -

udp 0 0 *:bootpc *:* -

udp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* -

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

DHCP is running on the bootps UDP port which translates to port 67 UDP.

You can it using:

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ grep bootps /etc/services

bootps 67/tcp # BOOTP server

bootps 67/udp

 

bootps means port 67.

 

The DHCP server writes all current IP addressess “leases” to the file /var/lib/dhcp3/dhcpd.leases.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhcpd.leases

# All times in this file are in UTC (GMT), not your local timezone. This is

# not a bug, so please don’t ask about it. There is no portable way to

# store leases in the local timezone, so please don’t request this as a

# feature. If this is inconvenient or confusing to you, we sincerely

# apologize. Seriously, though – don’t ask.

# The format of this file is documented in the dhcpd.leases(5) manual page.

# This lease file was written by isc-dhcp-V3.0.4

 

lease 192.168.0.199 {

starts 5 2007/10/05 22:37:02;

ends 5 2007/10/05 23:37:02;

tstp 5 2007/10/05 23:37:02;

binding state free;

hardware ethernet 00:0d:88:b3:72:f3;

}

lease 192.168.0.200 {

starts 5 2007/10/05 21:56:50;

ends 6 2007/10/06 21:56:50;

tstp 6 2007/10/06 21:56:50;

binding state active;

next binding state free;

hardware ethernet 00:90:f5:36:9a:eb;

client-hostname “zyrex”;

}

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

 

Another Configuration

DHCP server can set fixed ip addressess to group of clients as long as you have their MAC addressess.

For example, the ‘test computer’ has MAC ‘hardware ethernet 00:0d:88:b3:72:f3;’.

 

Just add the configuration scripts below into your DCHP file configuration.

host our_test_pc {

hardware ethernet 00:0d:88:b3:72:f3;

fixed-address 192.168.0.23

}

 

so it will become like this:

ddns-update-style none;

option domain-name-servers 202.134.2.5, 202.134.0.155;

default-lease-time 86400;

max-lease-time 604800;

authoritative;

subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;

option routers 192.168.0.1;

}

 

host our_test_pc {

hardware ethernet 00:0d:88:b3:72:f3;

fixed-address 192.168.0.23

}

 

That configuration says:

Set dynamic ip addressess from 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200

Set fixed ip address for our_test_pc : 192.168.0.23

 

Save the file and restart the DHCP server.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

* Stopping DHCP server dhcpd3 [ OK ]

* Starting DHCP server dhcpd3 [ OK ]

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Now, let’s check our test computer.

linuxserver:~ # ifconfig

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0D:88:B3:72:F3

inet addr:192.168.0.23 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0

inet6 addr: fe80::20d:88ff:feb3:72f3/64 Scope:Link

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

RX packets:57 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:263 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:6804 (6.6 Kb) TX bytes:28460 (27.7 Kb)

Interrupt:193 Base address:0xb800

 

lo Link encap:Local Loopback

inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0

inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host

UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1

RX packets:173 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:173 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

RX bytes:13535 (13.2 Kb) TX bytes:13535 (13.2 Kb)

 

linuxserver:~ #

 

Well, seem that all work. Now, you can see that you can create dynamic and static ip addressess for your clients with DCHP Server Service.

Before I finish this article, I will explain a bit about our dhcp configuration.

 

ddns-update-style none;

You can tell DHCP to update a DNS server if the IP addressess of a server in your LAN has changed.

We don’t want to update DNS records so just set it to none.

 

option domain-name-servers 202.134.2.5, 202.134.0.155;

Tell DHCP server which DNS servers it should assign to a client. You can specify more than one DNS server, don’t forget to separate by commas.

 

default-lease-time 86400;

Tell DHCP server how long clients would like to get an ip addressess. It’s in seconds. So, 86400 mean 24 hours.

 

max-lease-time 604800;

Tell DHCP server that maximum lease time is 7 days.

 

authoritative;

 

 

subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

subnet: subnet to use

netmask: netmask to use

 

range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;

Ip range is 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200. So, there are 101 ip addressess.

 

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

subnet-mask: subnet-mask to use

 

option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;

broadcast address: 192.168.0.255

 

option routers 192.168.0.1;

Tell DHCP server the gateway address it should assign to requesting clients.

Default gateway is 192.168.0.1 (gateway will be based on your network setup).

}

 

Hopefully, my explanation is easty for you to understand.

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I’ve my apache2 installed in my computer at the first time I install Ubuntu. Then, I remove it when I start to use XAMPP. I like to use Xampp because it’s more easy to use and the good thing is, it’s separate from the Ubuntu System. So, when you don’t need, just remove the its directory, and that’s it.

Then, when I make an article about Apache2 in my Blog, I installed the apache2 using ‘sudo apt-get install apache2′ command line in my terminal.

 

The whole process is run smoothly. But, I can’t get into the web server service when I put standard url “localhost‘ in my Firefox. I tried to run it manually through ‘/etc/init.d/apache restart‘, there was no error message, but still the server didn’t run. I tried to re-install it again but still couldn’t run. When I checked at ‘/var/run/‘ the ‘apache2.pid‘ was not there.

 

Then I decided to install it manually using apache2 packages that come from Ubuntu Live CD.

You will need 4 packages to run it and you have to install it from the first package (apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb ) until at the last one (apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb ).

  • apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

Selecting previously deselected package apache2-utils.

(Reading database … 155074 files and directories currently installed.)

Unpacking apache2-utils (from apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Setting up apache2-utils (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2.2-common 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2.2-common …

Setting up apache2.2-common (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

Installing new version of config file /etc/init.d/apache2 …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2-mpm-prefork 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2-mpm-prefork …

Setting up apache2-mpm-prefork (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2 …

Setting up apache2 (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

Then when I put ‘localhost’ at my Firefox a ‘common message that I’ve been looking for’ came out displayed on the Firefox, ‘It works!‘.

Well, I got my apache2 back again…..

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Description from its manual

hwinfo is used to probe for the hardware present in the system. It can be used to generate a system overview log which can be later used for support.

 

How to install the program?

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo apt-get install hwinfo

Password:

Reading package lists… Done

Building dependency tree

Reading state information… Done

The following extra packages will be installed:

libhd13

The following NEW packages will be installed:

hwinfo libhd13

0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Need to get 622kB of archives.

After unpacking 1692kB of additional disk space will be used.

Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y

Get:1 http://archive.ubuntu.com feisty/universe libhd13 13.11-3 [580kB]

Get:2 http://archive.ubuntu.com feisty/universe hwinfo 13.11-3 [41.2kB]

Fetched 622kB in 7s (78.1kB/s)

Selecting previously deselected package libhd13.

(Reading database … 154977 files and directories currently installed.)

Unpacking libhd13 (from …/libhd13_13.11-3_i386.deb) …

Selecting previously deselected package hwinfo.

Unpacking hwinfo (from …/hwinfo_13.11-3_i386.deb) …

Setting up libhd13 (13.11-3) …

 

Setting up hwinfo (13.11-3) …

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Help file

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ hwinfo –help

Usage: hwinfo [options]

Probe for hardware.

–short just a short listing

–log logfile write info to logfile

–debug level set debuglevel

–version show libhd version

–dump-db n dump hardware data base, 0: external, 1: internal

–hw_item probe for hw_item

hw_item is one of:

all, bios, block, bluetooth, braille, bridge, camera, cdrom, chipcard, cpu,

disk, dsl, dvb, floppy, framebuffer, gfxcard, hub, ide, isapnp, isdn,

joystick, keyboard, memory, modem, monitor, mouse, netcard, network,

partition, pci, pcmcia, pcmcia-ctrl, pppoe, printer, scanner, scsi, smp,

sound, storage-ctrl, sys, tape, tv, usb, usb-ctrl, vbe, wlan, zip

 

Note: debug info is shown only in the log file. (If you specify a log file the debug level is implicitly set to a reasonable value.)

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Let’s start.

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ hwinfo –short

cpu:

Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2.40GHz, 2400 MHz

keyboard:

/dev/input/event1 AT Translated Set 2 keyboard

mouse:

/dev/input/mice Apple Macintosh mouse button emulation

/dev/input/mice PS/2 Mouse

/dev/input/mice AlpsPS/2 ALPS GlidePoint

graphics card:

CLEVO/KAPOK SiS 660

sound:

CLEVO/KAPOK AC’97 Sound Controller

storage:

Floppy disk controller

CLEVO/KAPOK 5513 [IDE]

network:

eth0 CLEVO/KAPOK RTL-8139/8139C/8139C+

modem:

/dev/ttySL0 CLEVO/KAPOK AC’97 Modem Controller

network interface:

lo Loopback network interface

eth0 Ethernet network interface

disk:

/dev/sda SAMSUNG MP0402H

/dev/sdb GENERIC USB Storage-SMC

/dev/sdc GENERIC USB Storage-CFC

/dev/sdd GENERIC USB Storage-MMC

/dev/sde GENERIC USB Storage-MSC

partition:

/dev/sda1 Partition

/dev/sda2 Partition

/dev/sda3 Partition

/dev/sda4 Partition

/dev/sda5 Partition

cdrom:

/dev/sr0 TSSTcorp CDRW/DVD TSL462D

usb controller:

CLEVO/KAPOK USB 1.0 Controller

CLEVO/KAPOK USB 1.0 Controller

CLEVO/KAPOK USB 1.0 Controller

CLEVO/KAPOK USB 2.0 Controller

bios:

BIOS

bridge:

CLEVO/KAPOK 661FX/M661FX/M661MX Host

Silicon Integrated SiS AGP Port (virtual PCI-to-PCI bridge)

Silicon Integrated SiS963 [MuTIOL Media IO]

CLEVO/KAPOK CB1410 Cardbus Controller

hub:

Linux 2.6.20-16-generic ohci_hcd OHCI Host Controller

Linux 2.6.20-16-generic ohci_hcd OHCI Host Controller

Linux 2.6.20-16-generic ohci_hcd OHCI Host Controller

Linux 2.6.20-16-generic ehci_hcd EHCI Host Controller

memory:

Main Memory

firewire controller:

CLEVO/KAPOK FireWire Controller

unknown:

FPU

DMA controller

PIC

Timer

RTC

Keyboard controller

/dev/lp0 Parallel controller

Silicon Integrated SiS961/2 SMBus Controller

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

PnP Unclassified device

Unclassified device

Serial controller

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Check your modem

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ hwinfo –modem

16: PCI 02.6: 10204 LinModem (Generic)

[Created at pci.281]

UDI: /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/pci_1039_7013

Unique ID: AXjq.2_zl0UorD89

SysFS ID: /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.6

SysFS BusID: 0000:00:02.6

Hardware Class: modem

Model: “CLEVO/KAPOK AC’97 Modem Controller”

Vendor: pci 0×1039 “Silicon Integrated Systems Corp.”

Device: pci 0×7013 “AC’97 Modem Controller”

SubVendor: pci 0×1558 “CLEVO/KAPOK Computer”

SubDevice: pci 0×4201

Revision: 0xa0

Device File: /dev/ttySL0

Device Number: char 212:0

I/O Ports: 0×1400-0x14ff (rw)

I/O Ports: 0×1080-0x10ff (rw)

IRQ: 5 (1367 events)

Module Alias: “pci:v00001039d00007013sv00001558sd00004201bc07sc03i00″

Driver Info #0:

Driver Status: slamr is not active

Driver Activation Cmd: “modprobe slamr”

Driver Info #1:

Driver Status: snd_intel8x0m is not active

Driver Activation Cmd: “modprobe snd_intel8x0m”

Driver Info #2:

Driver Status: hsfmc97sis is active

Driver Activation Cmd: “modprobe hsfmc97sis”

Config Status: cfg=new, avail=yes, need=no, active=unknown

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Check your Sound Card

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ hwinfo –sound

17: PCI 02.7: 0401 Multimedia audio controller

[Created at pci.281]

UDI: /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/pci_1039_7012

Unique ID: 1sCg.DueFQE3euaD

SysFS ID: /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:02.7

SysFS BusID: 0000:00:02.7

Hardware Class: sound

Model: “CLEVO/KAPOK AC’97 Sound Controller”

Vendor: pci 0×1039 “Silicon Integrated Systems Corp.”

Device: pci 0×7012 “AC’97 Sound Controller”

SubVendor: pci 0×1558 “CLEVO/KAPOK Computer”

SubDevice: pci 0×0480

Revision: 0xa0

Driver: “Intel ICH”

Driver Modules: “snd_intel8x0″

I/O Ports: 0x1c00-0x1cff (rw)

I/O Ports: 0×1800-0x187f (rw)

IRQ: 5 (516 events)

Module Alias: “pci:v00001039d00007012sv00001558sd00000480bc04sc01i00″

Driver Info #0:

Driver Status: i810_audio is not active

Driver Activation Cmd: “modprobe i810_audio”

Driver Info #1:

Driver Status: snd_intel8x0 is active

Driver Activation Cmd: “modprobe snd_intel8x0″

Config Status: cfg=new, avail=yes, need=no, active=unknown

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

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CPU Specification

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cat /proc/cpuinfo

processor : 0

vendor_id : GenuineIntel

cpu family : 15

model : 4

model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2.40GHz

stepping : 1

cpu MHz : 2400.238

cache size : 1024 KB

fdiv_bug : no

hlt_bug : no

f00f_bug : no

coma_bug : no

fpu : yes

fpu_exception : yes

cpuid level : 5

wp : yes

flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe constant_tsc up pni monitor ds_cpl cid xtpr

bogomips : 4804.04

clflush size : 64

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Memory Usage

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cat /proc/meminfo

MemTotal: 481420 kB

MemFree: 5640 kB

Buffers: 72200 kB

Cached: 259676 kB

SwapCached: 7980 kB

Active: 228516 kB

Inactive: 216040 kB

HighTotal: 0 kB

HighFree: 0 kB

LowTotal: 481420 kB

LowFree: 5640 kB

SwapTotal: 979956 kB

SwapFree: 971976 kB

Dirty: 8 kB

Writeback: 0 kB

AnonPages: 104716 kB

Mapped: 94236 kB

Slab: 20624 kB

SReclaimable: 9300 kB

SUnreclaim: 11324 kB

PageTables: 2056 kB

NFS_Unstable: 0 kB

Bounce: 0 kB

CommitLimit: 1220664 kB

Committed_AS: 512424 kB

VmallocTotal: 540664 kB

VmallocUsed: 7500 kB

VmallocChunk: 532700 kB

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Harddisk Partition

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:/proc$ cat partitions

major minor #blocks name

 

8 0 39121488 sda

8 1 10241406 sda1

8 2 1 sda2

8 3 979965 sda3

8 4 12538732 sda4

8 5 15358108 sda5

taufanlubis@zyrex:/proc$

 

Ubuntu Version

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cat /proc/version

Linux version 2.6.20-16-generic (root@terranova) (gcc version 4.1.2 (Ubuntu 4.1.2-0ubuntu4)) #2 SMP Sun Sep 23 19:50:39 UTC 2007

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cat /proc/version_signature

Ubuntu 2.6.20-16.32-generic

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

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To check the disk space usage in Ubuntu, you can use.

  • du estimate file space usage

  • df report file system disk space usage

 

Note:

-s, –summarize display only a total for each argument

-h, –human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

-c, –total produce a grand total

 

 

Check total disk usage (summarized)

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ du -sh /media/hda5

12G /media/hda5

 

Check total directory usage (summarized)

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ du -sh /media/hda5/New\ download/

839M /media/hda5/New download/

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

Check directory usage

taufanlubis@zyrex:/media/hda5/New download/drupal$ du -ch

592K ./drupal-5.1/includes

64K ./drupal-5.1/misc/farbtastic

424K ./drupal-5.1/misc

88K ./drupal-5.1/modules/aggregator

56K ./drupal-5.1/modules/block

32K ./drupal-5.1/modules/blog

40K ./drupal-5.1/modules/blogapi

72K ./drupal-5.1/modules/book

24K ./drupal-5.1/modules/color/images

88K ./drupal-5.1/modules/color

112K ./drupal-5.1/modules/comment

48K ./drupal-5.1/modules/contact

48K ./drupal-5.1/modules/drupal

80K ./drupal-5.1/modules/filter

80K ./drupal-5.1/modules/forum

32K ./drupal-5.1/modules/help

24K ./drupal-5.1/modules/legacy

56K ./drupal-5.1/modules/locale

48K ./drupal-5.1/modules/menu

152K ./drupal-5.1/modules/node

32K ./drupal-5.1/modules/path

24K ./drupal-5.1/modules/ping

56K ./drupal-5.1/modules/poll

56K ./drupal-5.1/modules/profile

80K ./drupal-5.1/modules/search

48K ./drupal-5.1/modules/statistics

264K ./drupal-5.1/modules/system

72K ./drupal-5.1/modules/taxonomy

32K ./drupal-5.1/modules/throttle

32K ./drupal-5.1/modules/tracker

56K ./drupal-5.1/modules/upload

136K ./drupal-5.1/modules/user

40K ./drupal-5.1/modules/watchdog

2.0M ./drupal-5.1/modules

16K ./drupal-5.1/profiles/default

24K ./drupal-5.1/profiles

40K ./drupal-5.1/scripts

16K ./drupal-5.1/sites/all

16K ./drupal-5.1/sites/default

40K ./drupal-5.1/sites

72K ./drupal-5.1/themes/bluemarine

48K ./drupal-5.1/themes/chameleon/marvin

104K ./drupal-5.1/themes/chameleon

64K ./drupal-5.1/themes/engines/phptemplate

72K ./drupal-5.1/themes/engines

80K ./drupal-5.1/themes/garland/color

120K ./drupal-5.1/themes/garland/images

72K ./drupal-5.1/themes/garland/minnelli/color

104K ./drupal-5.1/themes/garland/minnelli

408K ./drupal-5.1/themes/garland

288K ./drupal-5.1/themes/pushbutton

952K ./drupal-5.1/themes

4.2M ./drupal-5.1

39M .

39M total

taufanlubis@zyrex:/media/hda5/New download/drupal$

 

Check disk space available

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda4 12G 5.0G 6.2G 45% /

varrun 236M 128K 235M 1% /var/run

varlock 236M 0 236M 0% /var/lock

procbususb 236M 136K 235M 1% /proc/bus/usb

udev 236M 136K 235M 1% /dev

devshm 236M 0 236M 0% /dev/shm

lrm 236M 33M 203M 15% /lib/modules/2.6.20-16-generic/volatile

/dev/sda5 15G 12G 2.9G 81% /media/hda5

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ df -h /media/hda5

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda5 15G 12G 2.9G 81% /media/hda5

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

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