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This error occurs if you don’t have permission to access the Virtual Box. It happens be caused the you are not belong to the vboxusers group.

vbox_error.png
taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ ls -l /dev/vboxdrv

crw-rw—- 1 root vboxusers 10, 63 2007-11-27 21:04 /dev/vboxdrv

There are 2 ways to fix it.

First, give read and write permission to users.

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ sudo chmod a+rw /dev/vboxdrv

[sudo] password for taufanlubis:

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ ls -l /dev/vboxdrv

crw-rw-rw- 1 root vboxusers 10, 63 2007-11-27 21:04 /dev/vboxdrv

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$

The first way is for temporary permission. Mean if you restart/turn on your computer the setting will be gone.

So, you have change the permission every time you start the Virtual Box.

 

Second, put your name into vboxusers group.Open System > Administration > Users and Groups > Manage Groups
vbox_error2.png

Click properties, mark your user name and click OK button to save the setting.

vbox_error3.png

 

Close all ‘User and Groups’ screen. Now, you don’t have to change the permission every time you run Virtual Box.

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Toshiba Satellite A200 and A205 series have problem with I ts sound when you install Ubuntu.

Because, the Realtek 268 codec from Intel ICH7 with Realtek chipset doesn’t support Ubuntu. So, if you want to get your sound back, you have to replace the codec with latest version from ALSA driver.

 

You can check your codec by typing:

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ cat /proc/asound/card0/codec#0 | grep Codec

Codec: Realtek ID 268

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$

 

Check your sound card:

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ lspci

……

00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) High Definition Audio Controller (rev 02)

…..

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$

 

Most modern distros come with soundcore compiled as a module. You can check it by typing:

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ modinfo soundcore

filename: /lib/modules/2.6.22-14-generic/kernel/sound/soundcore.ko

alias: char-major-14-*

license: GPL

author: Alan Cox

description: Core sound module

srcversion: 548AA54AF08207316C104F8

depends:

vermagic: 2.6.22-14-generic SMP mod_unload 586

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$

If this command returns that you have this module, then you don’t need to recompile your kernel.

 

There few steps you need to follow:

Step 1. Download the latest driver from ALSA project.

ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) provides audio and MIDI functionally to the Linux operating system. The web page address is: www.alsa-project.org

There 3 files that you have to download, alsa-driver, alsa-lib and alsa-utils.

alsa-driver-1.0.15.tar.bz2 2.6M

alsa-lib-1.0.15.tar.bz2 776K

alsa-utils-1.0.15.tar.bz2 991K

These are the latest update when I downloaded it.

 

Step 2. Copy the 3 files to alsa directory in /usr/src

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ cd /usr/src

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src$ sudo mkdir alsa

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src$ cd alsa

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa$ sudo cp /…your_alsa_location.../alsa-*

 

Step 3. Install the alsa-driver package

I suggest to use both bunzip2 and tar, not tar only.

cd /usr/src

mkdir alsa

cd alsa

cp /downloads/alsa-*

 

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa$ sudo bunzip2 alsa-driver-1.0.15.tar.bz2

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa$ sudo tar -xf alsa-driver-1.0.15.tar

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa$ cd alsa-driver-1.0.15/

I suggest to use root access level not sudo because I got problem when I used sudo.

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15$ su root

Password:

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15# ./configure –with-cards=hda-intel –with-sequencer=yes ; make ; make install

 

Step 4. Set permissions for dsp, mixer, sequencer and midi (if you use it).

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15# ls -l /dev/dsp /dev/mixer /dev/sequencer

crw-rw—- 1 root audio 14, 3 2007-11-25 21:09 /dev/dsp

crw-rw—- 1 root audio 14, 0 2007-11-25 21:09 /dev/mixer

crw-rw—- 1 root audio 14, 1 2007-11-25 21:09 /dev/sequencer

 

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15# chmod a+rw /dev/dsp /dev/mixer /dev/sequencer

 

Step 5. Install alsa-lib package

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15# cd ..

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa# bunzip2 alsa-lib-1.0.15.tar.bz2

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa# cd alsa-lib-1.0.15

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-lib-1.0.15# ./configure ; make ; make install

 

Step 6. Install alsa-utils package

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-lib-1.0.15# cd ..

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa# bunzip2 alsa-utils-1.0.15.tar.bz2

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa# tar alsa-utils-1.0.15.tar

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa# cd alsa-utils-1.0.15

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# ./configure ; make ; make install

 

Step 7. Insert the modules into the kernel

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# modprobe snd-hda-intel

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# modprobe snd-pcm-oss

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# modprobe snd-mixer-oss

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# modprobe snd-seq-oss

 

Step 8. Adjust your sound card’s volume levels

You can quit now from root access level.

root@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-utils-1.0.15# exit

exit

All mixer channels are muted by default, so you must unmute the channels. You can use alsamixer from alsa-utils package.

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15$ alsamixer

alsa2.png

Step 9. Setting up modprobe and kmod support

If you don’t have /etc/modules.conf, just create a new one.

taufanlubis@toshiba:/usr/src/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.15$ cd /etc

taufanlubis@toshiba:/etc$ sudo gedit modules.conf

#Alsa portion

alias snd-card-0 snd-hda-intel

alias snd-card-1 snd-cmipci

options snd-cmipci id=”firt” mpu_port=0×330

 

# OSS/Free portion

alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0

alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1

 

Create alsa file in /etc/modutils/

taufanlubis@toshiba:/etc$ cd modutils/

taufanlubis@toshiba:/etc/modutils$ sudo gedit alsa

#ALSA portion

alias char-major-116 snd

alias snd-card-0 snd-hda-intel

#module options should go here

 

#OSS/Free portion

alias char-major-14 soundcore

alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0

 

#card #1

alias sound-service-0-0 snd-mixer-oss

alias sound-service-0-1 snd-seq-oss

alias sound-service-0-3 snd-pcm-oss

alias sound-service-0-8 snd-seq-oss

alias sound-service-0-12 snd-pcm-oss

Step 10. Reboot your computer.

You will get the sound after you boot your computer.

 

Now, you have a new sound Codec for your sound card.

alsa01.png

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$ cat /proc/asound/card0/codec#0 | grep Codec

Codec: Realtek ALC268

taufanlubis@toshiba:~$

 

Happy trying.

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What is Grub?

Grub is abbreviaton of “GRand Unified Bootloader”. It is used as a bootloader.

The location of grub is in /boot/grub

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ cd /boot/grub

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ ls -l

total 224

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 197 2007-07-31 11:29 default

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 15 2007-07-31 11:29 device.map

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 8660 2007-07-31 11:29 e2fs_stage1_5

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 8452 2007-07-31 11:29 fat_stage1_5

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 15 2007-07-31 11:29 installed-version

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 9152 2007-07-31 11:29 jfs_stage1_5

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 4383 2007-09-30 07:37 menu.lst

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 4383 2007-09-30 07:37 menu.lst~

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 5145 2007-09-11 21:42 menu.lst.backup

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 7860 2007-07-31 11:29 minix_stage1_5

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 10132 2007-07-31 11:29 reiserfs_stage1_5

drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-09-21 11:43 splashimages

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 512 2007-07-31 11:29 stage1

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 110132 2007-07-31 11:29 stage2

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 9980 2007-07-31 11:29 xfs_stage1_5

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$

 

If you use more than 1 Operating System, you can set your choice in ‘menu.lst’ file.

Always make a back up before you work with a file system.

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo cp menu.lst menu.lst.backup

 

Open the menu.lst file.

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo gedit menu.lst

# default number

# Numbering starts from 0, and the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not used.

default 0

## timeout sec

# Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the default entry

# (normally the first entry defined).

timeout 20

# Pretty colours

color white/blue

 

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic

root (hd0,3)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-15-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro quiet splash

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-15-generic

quiet

savedefault

 

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic (recovery mode)

root (hd0,3)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-15-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro single

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-15-generic

 

title Ubuntu, memtest86+

root (hd0,3)

kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin

quiet

 

### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST

 

If you upgrade your kernel, you will get another choice of running Ubuntu. Either you want to go with your old kernel or start with a new one. Automatically added to menu.lst

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo apt-get update

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo apt-get upgrade

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

New Kernel menu added after the upgrade proccess has done. You will see it after you reboot your Ubuntu.

Before the menu.lst was:

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic (recovery mode)

  • Ubuntu, memtest86+

     

My new menu:

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-16-generic

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-16-generic (recovery mode)

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic

  • Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic (recovery mode)

  • Ubuntu, memtest86+

     

You have 2 new menus but Ubuntu still keep also the old one.

If you don’t need it any more just remove it.

taufanlubis@zyrex:/boot/grub$ sudo gedit menu.lst

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-16-generic

root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-16-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro quiet splash

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-16-generic

quiet

savedefault

 

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-16-generic (recovery mode)

root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-16-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro single

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-16-generic

 

#——remove this part – START——————————————————————-

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic

root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-15-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro quiet splash

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-15-generic

quiet

savedefault

 

title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.20-15-generic (recovery mode)

root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.20-15-generic root=UUID=3bde3b2e-927d-4869-9635-6f7db9d5ed36 ro single

initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20-15-generic

#——remove this part – END——————————————————————-

title Ubuntu, memtest86+

root (hd0,0)

kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin

quiet

Save it. Now you only have the menu for the latest kernel.

 

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I’ve my apache2 installed in my computer at the first time I install Ubuntu. Then, I remove it when I start to use XAMPP. I like to use Xampp because it’s more easy to use and the good thing is, it’s separate from the Ubuntu System. So, when you don’t need, just remove the its directory, and that’s it.

Then, when I make an article about Apache2 in my Blog, I installed the apache2 using ‘sudo apt-get install apache2′ command line in my terminal.

 

The whole process is run smoothly. But, I can’t get into the web server service when I put standard url “localhost‘ in my Firefox. I tried to run it manually through ‘/etc/init.d/apache restart‘, there was no error message, but still the server didn’t run. I tried to re-install it again but still couldn’t run. When I checked at ‘/var/run/‘ the ‘apache2.pid‘ was not there.

 

Then I decided to install it manually using apache2 packages that come from Ubuntu Live CD.

You will need 4 packages to run it and you have to install it from the first package (apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb ) until at the last one (apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb ).

  • apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

  • apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

Selecting previously deselected package apache2-utils.

(Reading database … 155074 files and directories currently installed.)

Unpacking apache2-utils (from apache2-utils_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Setting up apache2-utils (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2.2-common 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2.2-common_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2.2-common …

Setting up apache2.2-common (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

Installing new version of config file /etc/init.d/apache2 …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2-mpm-prefork 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2-mpm-prefork_2.2.3-3.2build1_i386.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2-mpm-prefork …

Setting up apache2-mpm-prefork (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo dpkg -i apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb

(Reading database … 155099 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to replace apache2 2.2.3-3.2build1 (using apache2_2.2.3-3.2build1_all.deb) …

Unpacking replacement apache2 …

Setting up apache2 (2.2.3-3.2build1) …

 

Then when I put ‘localhost’ at my Firefox a ‘common message that I’ve been looking for’ came out displayed on the Firefox, ‘It works!‘.

Well, I got my apache2 back again…..

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I realized this thing when I got problem with my laptop’s cooling fans. I use both XP and Ubuntu. And for your information, I still use Pentium IV. The problem was the air tunnel was dirty, so the air circulation was not maximum.

 

When I used XP, I still can work for hours even with heavy programs.

When I worked with Ubuntu, I only can work for max 30 minutes. Especially, when I open few programs.

I could see from the temperatur indicator in Ubuntu Panel. It increased bit slowly until it automatically turn off.

Does Ubuntu need more source of CPU compare to windows XP?

 

I don’t think so. What I think is, in windows, all devices are supported with its original driver. Mean, all devices could work efficiently and use all its capability.

When, I work with Ubuntu, all devices worked with standard driver. Of course, it will need more sources from the CPU.

Well, that’s only what I think.

Do you think the same think with what I think?

 

 

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Using Ubuntu in Zyrex Laptop

My laptop brand is Zyrex. It’s assambled in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is old but still powerfull for my daily duties.

Pentium IV, 512MB RAM, DVD ROM + CD writer, SiS AC97 Sound Controller, Modem SiSAC97 Modem Controller, Realtek Ethernet card, 15” screen, SiS VGA card, 2 USB, Firewire, PCMCIA and Card Reader for SMC, MSC, MMC, CFC and Sony Stick Duo.

 

When I run Ubuntu Live CD, all devices are recognized, include the Function Keys (for sound, brightness, projector, stand by, mute) except my Modem. It’s recognized but still can’t work. So, I just used an external modem. Compare to another brands (Acer, IBM, Toshiba, Fujitsu, HP) with the same features, it’s 300US cheaper at the time I bought it.

The problem is only the screen. It’s not strong enough. I think IBM is the most strongest one.

 

If you want to use Beryl with it, forget it. Because the VGA card is SIS and SIS doesn’t support Beryl, even the 3D effect.

 

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ lspci

00:00.0 Host bridge: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] 661FX/M661FX/M661MX Host (rev 11)

00:01.0 PCI bridge: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] SiS AGP Port (virtual PCI-to-PCI bridge)

00:02.0 ISA bridge: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] SiS963 [MuTIOL Media IO] (rev 14)

00:02.1 SMBus: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] SiS961/2 SMBus Controller

00:02.3 FireWire (IEEE 1394): Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] FireWire Controller

00:02.5 IDE interface: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] 5513 [IDE]

00:02.6 Modem: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] AC’97 Modem Controller (rev a0)

00:02.7 Multimedia audio controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] AC’97 Sound Controller (rev a0)

00:03.0 USB Controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] USB 1.0 Controller (rev 0f)

00:03.1 USB Controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] USB 1.0 Controller (rev 0f)

00:03.2 USB Controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] USB 1.0 Controller (rev 0f)

00:03.3 USB Controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] USB 2.0 Controller

00:0a.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL-8139/8139C/8139C+ (rev 10)

00:0c.0 CardBus bridge: ENE Technology Inc CB1410 Cardbus Controller (rev 01)

01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] 661/741/760 PCI/AGP or 662/761Gx PCIE VGA Display Adapter

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

 

 

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Working with keyboard in linux

How to check combination key?

taufanlubis@mylaptop:~$ stty -a

speed 38400 baud; rows 24; columns 80; line = 0;

intr = ^C; quit = ^\; erase = ^?; kill = ^U; eof = ^D; eol = <undef>;

eol2 = <undef>; swtch = <undef>; start = ^Q; stop = ^S; susp = ^Z; rprnt = ^R;

werase = ^W; lnext = ^V; flush = ^O; min = 1; time = 0;

-parenb -parodd cs8 -hupcl -cstopb cread -clocal -crtscts

-ignbrk -brkint -ignpar -parmrk -inpck -istrip -inlcr -igncr icrnl -ixon -ixoff

-iuclc -ixany -imaxbel iutf8

opost -olcuc -ocrnl onlcr -onocr -onlret -ofill -ofdel nl0 cr0 tab0 bs0 vt0 ff0

isig icanon iexten echo echoe echok -echonl -noflsh -xcase -tostop -echoprt

echoctl echoke

 

Change combination code

change <Erase> combination from ‘ctrl+?’ to be ‘ctrl+e’

<Erase> is used to delete 1 character to left.

taufanlubis@mylaptop:~$ stty erase ‘^e’

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

Example:

taufanlubis@mylaptop:~$ 12345678 then press ‘ctrl+e

taufanlubis@mylaptop:~$ 1234567 1 character is deleted.

 

<Kill> is used to delete all characters

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ stty kill ‘^k’

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ sudo apt-get instal then press ‘ctrl+k

taufanlubis@zyrex:~$ all characters are deleted.

 

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Below, is the list of graphic cards which have been tested to run Beryl, Compiz or Compiz Fusion

  • ATI 7000 / rv100 based cards
  • ATI 7200 / R100 based cards
  • ATI 7500 / rv200 based cards
  • ATI 8×00 / r200 based cards
  • ATI 9000 / rv250 based cards
  • ATI 9100 / R200 based cards
  • ATI 9200 / rv280 based cards

 

source: http://www.opotumon.com

 

  • ATI X600
  • ATI X550 / RV370
  • ATI Xpress 200
  • Nvidia GeForce4 MX440 64MB
  • Nvidia GeForce 660 128MB
  • Nvidia GeForce FX Go5200
  • Nvidia GeForce M
  • Nvidia GeForce Go7300
  • Intel GM900
  • Intel 82852/855GM
  • Intel 945GM
  • Intel GMA 950
  • Intel i915
  • Intel 82845G/GL
  • Intel 845 Gv
  • Intel 915GM
  • Intel 865
  • Intel 915

 

source: members from id-ubuntu mailing list.

Theoretically, you may run Beryl, mean 50% success or 50% fail.

  • ATI 9500 / R300 based cards

  • ATI 9600 / rv350 or rv360 based cards

  • ATI 9800 / R350 or R 360 based cards

  • ATI X300 / rv370 based cards

  • ATI X700 / rv410 based cards

  • ATI X800 / R420 or R423 or R430 or R480 based cards

  • ATI X850 / R480 or R481 based cards

 

Only support 2D:

- ATI Xpress 200M Northbridge Integrated GPUs

 

Not supported:

  • SIS

  • VIA

  • ATI X1300 / R515 based cards

  • ATI X1600 / R530 based cards

  • ATI X1800 / R520 based cards

  • ATI X1900 / R280 based cards

source: http://www.opotumon.com

If there any graphic cards that can run with Beryl, Compiz or Compiz Fusion, please, add it at the comment list.
Unfortunately, not all graphic cards support these programs. If you are using SIS or VIA, forget it. You can’t use it.

 

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