Function is a built-in program that available in Python that we can use to simplify our programming code. Mostly every programming language provide their built-in function according to purpose why it’s created. Functions in C, python, pearl, vb, assembly will be different.

To use function in python, you have to write the function name then followed by the parameters that the function need. Parameter is the information that will be used by function to solve the problem.

Built-in Functions:
abs(), divmod(), input(), open(), staticmethod(), all(), enumerate(), int(), ord(), str(), any(), eval() isinstance(), pow(), sum(), basestring(), execfile(), issubclass(), print(), super(), bin(), file(), iter(), property(), tuple(), bool(), filter()
,len(), range(), type(), bytearray(), float(), list(), raw_input(), unichr(), callable(), format(), locals(), reduce(), unicode(), chr(), frozenset(), long(), reload(), vars(), classmethod(), getattr(), map(), repr(), xrange(), cmp(), globals(), max(), reversed(), zip(), compile(), hasattr(), memoryview(), round(), __import__(), complex(), hash(), min(), set(), apply(), delattr(), help(), next(), setattr(), buffer(), dict(), hex(), object(), slice(), coerce(), dir(), id(), oct(), sorted(), intern()

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John The Ripper (JTR) is one of best password cracker ever built. At the first time, it’s design to detect the weakness of UNIX password. Now, it’s available for Unix, Linux, Windows, DOS, BeOS and Open-VMS. It supports several crypt password hash types in Unix, Kerberos AFS and windows NT/2000/XP LM hashes.

John The Ripper is a free and open source and distributed in source code file but for easy installation you can buy John The Ripper Pro.

 Before we start, you have to download JTR from http://www.openwall.com/john/g/john-1.7.9.tar.gz and put it in your selected folder.

 In this tutorial, I put JTR under /opt folder.
Type ‘sudo tar xvzf‘ following by JTR file name. The name can be different depend on which version that you have. I type: sudo tar xvzf john-1.7.9.tar.gz

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Frontlinesms is SMS gateaway server that enables users to send, receive and manage SMS over a mobile network. The interface is web based so you can make it run with a laptop for small volume messages or with a server for larger volume of messages. You don’t need an internet connection to run the frontlinesms. The text message is sent via mobile phone, GSM modem or SMS aggregator. So, the users only pay based on the standard text message charges from the mobile provider.

FrontLineSMS version 2 is release in summer 2012.
I will show you how to install Frontlinesms in your computer.

Step 1. Make “frontlinesms” folder in “/opt” directory.

In linux terminal, type:
cd /opt
mkdir frontlinesms

then copy the frontlinesms installer “frontlinesms2_unix_2.1.3.sh” into this folder.

Installer program can be download from this link:

Before you start, make sure that you have Java installed in your system because frontlinesms is built using Java SDK.
In linux terminal, type: “java -version” to check.

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I like to watch my movie collections more than one time. Or sometimes I like to watch certain scenes in few movies. The problem is sometimes my DVD disc is scratched and I have to buy it again. So, I decide to convert all my DVD to ISO file, so I can watch anytime, any selection scenes, easier and without worry have the same problem again. If my DVD disc is broken and I want to play it using my DVD player, I still can burn it.

Yes, you may say the file size will be too big, 3.3GB to 4.4GB per movie, meanwhile you can convert it and get smaller file size. But, you will get lower quality graphic, you can’t choose the language and you can’t burn it again.

It will consume a lot of hard disc space but with 1 TB or 2TB hard disc capacity available at the market, you can back up any movie that you want.

I choose ‘Brasero‘ because it’s very easy to use.

Open your ‘Brasero’ application. If you don’t have it you can install it using ‘$sudo apt-get install brasero‘ in your Linux terminal with Internet connection.

Enter your DVD disc, wait until it occur on your desktop then click ‘Disc copy’ button.
Then select to ‘write to image file‘.

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Do you want to play the old DOS games or applications? I do and I believe that there are still lots of ex DOS users want to run their old applications.

It was my first opereting system and I think I used it at about 25 years ago if I’m not mistaken. I like to remember what I did before especially if I have good memories with it. Playing Digger, Test drive or Lemmings, typing with wordstar, database with Dbase III+, spreadsheet with Lotus 123 or Impress and some utility tools like PCTools or Locksmith. Put in the big floppy disc for booting and replaced it with another floppy disc with the program. Hard disc was very rare on that time. But, I tell you, you were very lucky if you have a PC on that time.

Well, that’s all the folk. Now, there is a emulator named DOSbox that can do that. For more details about the DOSbox emulator you can read it in wikipedia.org

The installation is very easy.

Make sure you are connected to the internet.

Open your linux terminal and type: sudo apt-get install dosbox.

Installation will start automatically.

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If you always or like to work with linux terminal, I really recommend you to use Terminator. Your linux terminals will be more flexible. You can add, resize or create terminals in new window in seconds with few combination keys.

Installing terminator is very easy. Just open your linux terminal, make sure you are connected to the internet and type: sudo apt-get install terminator.

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Input is the entering data into the program and variable is temporary place for storing the data. There are 2 data that you can enter, string and number.

See the sample variables below:


b=”I’m python

a is number and b is string.


See the sample input below:

my_string=raw_input(“What is your name?”)

my_number=input(“Enter your number?”)

raw_input() function will give a string and input() function will give a number.


Now, let’s try directly in the idle.

Open Idle editor.

Select File > New Window.


In the new window, type the codes below:

print “Welcome to Python”

print “—————–“

print “”

s=raw_input(“Please, enter your name? “)

print “Hi..”,s,” Nice to meet you”

n=input(“Please, enter your favorite number? “)

print “Your favorite number + 3 =”,n+3

In the ‘New window’, select ‘Run > Run Module‘.

If there is no error, you will see the result in the Idle main screen.